Our next topic of discussion involves three very different cultures: that of Vietnam, China, and Manchuria. One culture, Manchu culture, serves its place in history as China’s invader and occupier. The other culture, Vietnamese culture, acts as China’s eternal rival, and at one dark point in its history, as China’s prisoner. Interestingly, the ones that acted as China’s overlords, the Manchus, would find their cultural heritage wiped from the face of the earth. On the other hand, Vietnamese culture, though dominated by the Chinese for 1000 years, will prevail, even to this very day.
What makes Vietnam different from Manchuria? How is it possible that the people of Vietnam, through 1000 years of occupation and assimilation from the invaders from the north, came to sustain their cultural and ethnic identity? Furthermore, how did the Manchus, effectively dethroning the Ming in 1644 and ruled all of China until 1912, see their way of life, their language, and their culture vanish in less than 300 years? The answer to this question, at least form my own analysis, is culture.
The three cultures mentioned above all varied in depth, richness, and sophistication. Whichever culture to most strongly display these three qualities was more likely to last. Unfortunately for the Manchus, their culture was the least likely to embody these qualities and, as a result, their culture was inevitably absorbed by the culture of the Han. Though the Manchu started out as the foreign overlords of the Chinese empire, they would gradually and increasingly adapt the customs and practices of the Chinese. Overtime, they would become Chinese themselves. This is where Vietnam and Manchuria differentiate, and this is where Vietnam prevails.
Du Mien Le Thanh Hoa, the author of Vietnam: The Springhead of Eastern Cultural Civilization suggests that Vietnam prevailed because of the strength of its culture. According to him, Vietnam’s culture was simply higher than Chinese culture. It was older, and more enshrined in the hearts and minds of the people of Viet. Thus, even when facing the jarring threat of Chinese assimilation, the Viet people continued to practice their culture. This persistence helped to safeguard the existence of Vietnamese culture.
Through all the hardship, Vietnam’s culture prevails, even to this day. For thousands of years, our traditions have been upheld, our language preserved. The legend of Lac Long Quan, the ancient folklore, and the songs of antiquity have been passed down from generation to generation. These foundations remind us who we are, but more importantly, who we are not. Through the darkest periods of foreign domination, our culture has kept us alive. Our ways of life have lived through the ages, and today, they are more important than ever.