Archive for Mongol Empire

Lý Long Tường and the Other Mongol Invasion. “Part 2”

Posted in Dynastic History with tags , , , , , , , on December 15, 2010 by Ian Pham

Welcome to Korea

Upon their arrival, Prince Lý and his envoy received a warm welcomed by Kojong, the King of Korea’s Koryo (aka Goryeo) Dynasty.  It seems that Lý Long Tường and his crew came to Korea at the right time, as they were handsomely accommodated by the people of Korea.

Whether Kojong knew it or not, he had been waiting for Lý Long Tường to land on the shores of Korea for a long time.  News of the prince’s arrival came to King Kojong in a dream, could it be fate that brought Prince Lý to the distant land of Korea?

The Dream of King Kojong

Legends speak of how Kojong had foreseen the arrival of Lý Long Tường in a dream.  Kojong dreamt of a majestic phoenix that flew all the way from the south to land on the shores of Korea.  Prince Lý’s arrival was therefore perceived as this phoenix, a heavenly sign that was immediately accepted by Kojong and his people.  Lý Long Tường was one of Đại Việt’s most talented generals, well versed in literature and the art of war.

Recognizing his talents, the Koreans quickly promoted Lý to the position of general.  For the rest of his days, Prince Lý Long Tường would be known as Lee of Hwasan, a bright and heroic figure of the Koryo nation.  With news of the Mongols’ impeding conquests on Korea, Lee of Hwasan, his Lý compatriots, and the Korean nation, mobilized their forces.

Ogodei and the First Mongol Invasion

Korea’s relationship with the Mongols tend to fluctuate at various times.  The Koryo Kingdom and the Mongol Empire may cooperate at one instant, and become hostile at another.  It all depends on the circumstances, and this time it’s war.  With the momentum of countless successful military campaigns across the lands of Eurasia, the Mongols now prepared to capture the Kingdom of Koryo.

The earliest of the Mongol invasions on Koryo was ignited in 1231-32, under the orders of Ogodei Khan.  Diplomacy between the two sides have failed, as a result the Mongol Empire prepared their assault against the Koryo Kingdom.  Ogodei, the son of Genghis, would oversee this first invasion, as well as the defeat at the hands of Koryo and Lý Long Tường.

Ogodei’s forces bombarded Koryo in all directions, through naval and conventional assaults.  Though they initially succeeded in capturing some Korean territories,  Prince Lý (aka Lee of Hwasan) mobilized his forces and confronted the Mongols at Hwang-hae.  Lý’s forces successfully warded off the Mongol advances, thus preserving Koryo’s sovereignty for the time being.  The Korean forces also showed tremendous resistance to the Mongol threat, neutralizing their efforts of capturing Koryo.

30 Years Later: The Final Invasions

After 30 years of intense fighting with the Mongol Empire, Koryo would finally see an end to the bloodshed.  Nearly three decades have passed since Ogodei Khan kick-started the Mongol invasion of Korea, and neither side wanted to let up.  The Mongols had captured many of Koryo’s territories, only to lose it in the distant future.  Treaties and agreements have come and gone, always resulting in military clashes between the two sides.

Lý Long Tường, now in his 70’s, has been fighting alongside the Korean forces.  It has been three decades since the prince accepted the title Lee of Hwasan, helping the Koreans in their struggle to break from the Mongols’ grasp.  After numerous battles, the Lee of Hwasan would engage in one final battle against the Mongols, playing a big role in their final defeat to the Kingdom of Koryo.

The Defeat of Mongke Khan

In the year of 1253, the Mongol army, under the fierce command of Mongke Khan, entered Koryo once again.  As they tried to capture the province of Hwang-hae, the forces of Lý Long Tường was their to engage.  After five months of armed combat, the forces of Lý Long Tường successfully eliminated the Mongol forces in that region, forcing them to surrender.

This victory would be the beginning of the full Mongol withdrawal from Korea.  Finally, after 30 years of excruciating resistance against the Mongol Empire, Koryo was finally free from their grasp.  Political actions taken by the patriotic rulers of Korea resulted in the Mongols abandoning their ambitions of capturing the Koryo Kingdom, leaving the country in 1259.

Lý Long Tường: The White Horse General

The fighting spirit of the Koreans helped them defeat the Mongols in numerous battles.  Numerously courageous warriors joined the fight to ultimately expel them from the country.  Fighting alongside these Korean generals was Lý Long Tường, Prince of Đại Việt, and descendent of the royal Lý family.  Prince Lý, along with the remnants of the Lý family, joined in the fight against the Mongols, playing a big role in their final defeat to the Kingdom of Koryo.

Prince Ly was a valiant fighter and a fearless general who led a division of the Korean military.  He arrived on the shores of Korea from Đại Việt in the 1220’s and will spend the rest of his life in Korea.  The several thousand members of the Lý clan would stay there with him, becoming proud members of the Korean community.  Besides the title Lee of Hwasan, Lý Long Tường was also known as the “White Horse General,” riding into battle on the back of a fierce white stallion.

It is said that throughout his life in Korea, Prince Lý would sit on the peak of a mountain and look southward in reverence of his former home.  Little did Prince Lý know that the land he looked back on so fondly would become a battleground for the Mongols’ next conquest.  His successor, St. Trần Hưng Đạo of the Trần Dynasty, would achieve a feat similar to Lý Long Tường.  Next time however, he would do so in a fashion even grander than the Lee of Hwasan himself.

Advertisements

Lý Long Tường and the Other Mongol Invasion. “Part 1”

Posted in Dynastic History with tags , , , , , on December 3, 2010 by Ian Pham

The Mongols’ defeats at the hands of Trần Hưng Đạo of the Trần Dynasty are one of the most prominent feats in the history of Vietnam.  There is however, another glorious victory during the Mongol Wars, accomplished this time by Prince Lý Long Tường.  As a survivor of the overthrown Lý Dynasty, Prince Lý Long Tường would help fend off the Mongol invasions on the kingdom of Korea, decades before Trần Hưng Đạo and the nation of Đại Việt.

Trần Thủ Độ and the Fall of the Lý

The story of Lý Long Tường begins in a tragic way, as the last Lý monarch, princess Lý Chiêu Hoàng, abdicated the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.  This was made possible because of Trần Thủ Độ, a man who exploited the conflict of a female ruler to break the line of succession of the Lý family.  As a result, the Lý family was deposed from the royal throne and replaced by the Trần family.

Infuriated by Trần Thủ Độ’s political schemes, the members of the Lý family became a strong opposing force to the new Trần rulers.  Fearing a revolt, the diabolical Trần Thủ Độ, regent of the fledgling Trần Dynasty, would orchestrate a political purge aimed at the entire Lý family.  With the power of the military, members of the Lý were targeted and ruthlessly executed.  Thousands of Vietnamese people died at the hands of Trần Thủ Độ, just for baring the name of Lý.

Lý Long Tường and the Voyage to Korea

Recognizing the serious situation that the Lý were facing, Prince Lý Long Tường decided to take action.  With the last of his political power, Lý Long Tường rounded up the remaining members of the Lý family, formulating a plan to evacuate them from Đại Việt.  What was once the homeland of the proud Lý Dynasty now became a hostile territory, a place where the first great rulers were no longer welcome.

With three giant ships, Lý Long Tường and the remnants of the Lý Dynasty set sail for the Eastern Sea.  On their journey at sea, the prince’s envoy encountered a typhoon.  In order to prevent the destruction of the envoy, Lý Long Tường had to make a pit stop, landing on the shores of Taiwan.  When the storm finally passed, the prince gathered his forces and continued northward.

However, Prince Ly’s son, Lý Long Hiền, was afflicted with a serious ailment during their stay in Taiwan.  As a result, Hiền was forced to stay behind while his father proceeded on his voyage in the Eastern Sea.  A number of mandarins and government officials stayed with Lý Long Hiền, becoming members of what is now known as Taiwan.

The Shores of Korea

After more than a month on the high seas, Lý Long Tường’s forces finally landed on the Korean peninsula, where they were warmly welcomed by Kojong, the king of the Korean kingdom.  It is here that Prince Lý will spend the rest of his days, along with the remaining members of the Lý clan.  When Prince Lý fled Đại Việt, he brought numerous talented people under his wing, all of which would be fully utilized by Korean rulers.

The time that Prince Lý arrived in Korea was also the time that Genghis Khan and his Mongols unleashed their fearsome conquests upon all of Eurasia.  Korea, like any other country at the time, was in danger of Mongol domination.  As a result, the Koreans mobilized their country to prepare for the Mongol invasion.

Since the Prince was a talented military commander for Đại Việt, Lý Long Tường was granted a leadership position in the Korean army.  With his help, the kingdom of Korea was prepared for the Mongols coming invasion.  News of Mongols’ countless military endeavors swept across the entire continent, and Korea was next on the list.

To be continued…

Trần Bình Trọng: The Definition of a Patriot

Posted in Dynastic History with tags , , on August 7, 2010 by Ian Pham

“I would rather be a demon of the South than a king to your Northern Nation.”

– Trần Bình Trọng, 1285

Trần Bình Trọng was a young general who fought for the Trần Dynasty, alongside the ranks of Trần Hưng Đạo, against the Yuan Dynasty during the Mongol invasions of the 13th century.  As a talented young leader, Trần Bình Trọng was chosen to lead a division of Đại Việt’s forces against the northern invaders.

He was a capable general, helping the Trần defeat the Mongols on several occasions.  However, as a young commander, he was defeated in one crucial battle, captured by the Mongols, and taken back to China.

Though they were enemies, Kublai Khan recognized the talents of the young leader and tried to convince Trọng to defect to the Mongols.  To this offer, Trần Bình Trọng declined, stating his unwavering loyalty to his homeland.

For the second offer, Kublai offered a reward for Trần if he were to provide information on the nation of Đại Việt and their army.  Again, Trọng’s response was a resounding “no!”  Unafraid of the Mongol threats.

As a last attempt, the Mongols asked Trần Bình Trọng if he would like to become a prince of the Yuan Dynasty.  To this, Trần Bình Trọng responded by saying that he’d rather be a Vietnamese demon than a king of their country.

This was the last straw, the Yuan Dynasty could no longer stand the insult of General Trần Bình Trọng.  As a result, the Mongols had him executed.  Trần Bình Trọng sacrificed his life to defend the honor of the country.  His actions are remembered today by the people of Vietnam as the prime example of courage, loyalty, and patriotism.

Trần Hưng Đạo and the Mongol Invasions

Posted in Dynastic History, Heroes of Vietnam Week with tags , , , , , , , on July 23, 2010 by Ian Pham

The Trần Dynasty (1225-1400)The Mongols

In the thirteenth century, a devastating force swept through the continent of East Asia, leaving a path of destruction in their trail.  Killing without mercy, fighting without end, and striking fear across the east, the world seemed to crumble at their feet.  The ones responsible for these ruthless invasions came to be known as the Mongol warriors, led by the famous Genghis Khan.  After uniting the rival tribes in Mongolia, Genghis Khan would embark on an ambitious mission to conquer all of Eurasia.

Many civilizations fell at the hands of Genghis and his Mongols, whose conquests paved the way for what came to be known as the Mongol Empire.  This empire included many countries between Europe and Asia such as Poland, Afghanistan, Iraq, Germany, Ukraine, and even pieces from the Russian Empire.  After Genghis’s death, his grandson Kublai was chosen as his successor.  It was Kublai Khan who completed his grandfather’s mission, engulfing all of China and successfully incorporating it into the Mongol Empire.

Surrender or Fight?

When the Mongols completed their conquest of China in 1279, the Yuan Dynasty was established.  The new rulers of the Chinese Empire then switched their sites to China’s southern neighbor, the young nation of Đại Việt, as their next target.

With news of the Mongols’ impending conquest, the emperor of Đại Việt was faced with a choice: surrender or fight.  The odds were, as it often was, unfavourable for the small Vietnamese state.  It was obvious that the Mongols had a much larger fighting force.  Having just conquered the enormous country of China in its entirety, engaging the Mongols was almost suicide.

The choice was too important for the emperor to make on his own, so he decided to take the matter into the hands of his people.  He informed his people of the coming invasion, that they were outnumbered many-to-one, and what the detrimental possibilities were.  So through a referendum, he asked his people: surrender or fight?

The unanimous response to this question was a resounding “fight!”  It didn’t matter how much they were outnumbered by, the Vietnamese people refused to let the country fall to foreign invaders, no matter what.  So with the people behind him, the Vietnamese emperor drew out a plan, and the fearless general Trần Hưng Đạo was summoned to lead the fight against the Mongol invaders.

Ready for War

Prior to the referendum, in 1257, the Mongols had already attacked the Vietnamese capital of Thăng Long, burning the city to the ground.  Fortunately, emperor Trần Thánh Tông and his generals quickly expelled the Mongol forces from Đại Việt, forcing them to return to China.  This successful ousting of the Mongol invaders would be known as the first victory over the Mongol Empire.  However, the Mongols would be back.  Next time with a larger entourage.

When the Yuan warriors returned to Vietnam in 1285, they demanded passage through the country to invade the Kingdom of Cham, along with the submission from the Vietnamese emperor as a tributary.  Obviously, the young emperor Trần Nhân Tông would not allow this to happen.  As a result of his refusal, the enraged Mongols of the Yuan prepared for another assault on the nation of Đại Việt.

The Mongol threat was very great and the chances of victory were slim.  How could a nation as small as Đại Việt resist a force that had wreaked havoc across all of Eurasia?  It didn’t matter, because after the referendum, the choice was clear.  The people of Đại Việt will fight, and it would be a fight to the death.  Under the command of General Trần Hưng Đạo, the Mongols would get a taste of bitter defeat.

The Invasions

The Mongols kicked off their invasion in 1285 the same way they did in 1258, by marching into the city of Thăng Long, the capital of Đại Việt.  However, Trần Hưng Đạo had already evacuated the city, burning off all the food and supplies, leaving the invaders with little resources to sustain themselves.  Realizing that the emperor and his occupants had moved southward, the Yuan soldiers immediately pursued them.  The invaders chased after the Viet forces, not knowing that they were playing right into the hands of General Trần.

The more they chased, the more supplies they consumed.  As a result, the Mongol army was riddled with fatigue, starvation, and disease.  When the time was right, Trần Hưng Đạo and his forces bombarded the exhausted Yuan army with a series of counter-attacks along the river fronts.  The brilliant offensives overwhelmed the Yuan invaders, causing their forces to quickly evacuate Đại Việt.  On the retreat, the Mongol armies were harassed by the forces of Đại Việt, who were cleverly stationed on the routes leading back to China.  Many Yuan soldiers died on the retreat from Đại Việt, including Sogetu, a Mongol commander.

Humiliated by this failed campaign, the infuriated Kublai Khan prepared for another expedition into Đại Việt.  In 1287, Kublai Khan deployed a  massive army, consisting of more than 500,000 soldiers, into Đại Việt under the command of Prince Toghan.  They were successful at first, capturing several provinces at the borders and defeating the soldiers of Đại Việt under General Trần Khánh Dư.  However, the victories were short-lived, as Trần Khánh Dư regrouped his forces and retaliated by cutting off the Mongols’ supply lines, leaving them with little to fight on.  At the same time, General Trần Hưng Đạo had recaptured the lost regions, and when the Mongols reached Thăng Long, the city was empty again.

The casualty rate of the Mongol army was getting too high, and the war no longer seemed worth it.  As a result, Prince Toghan decided to bring his army back to China.  Omar, a commander of the Yuan army, was ordered by Toghan to withdraw his troops through Bạch Đằng Bay, the place where Ngô Quyền destroyed the forces of the Southern Han centuries before.  Trần Hưng Đạo was about to repeat this victory, only this time, against the forces of Yuan.

The Return to Bạch Đằng Bay


Like his predecessor, Ngô Quyền, General Trần Hưng Đạo had anticipated his enemies using the River of Bạch Đằng as a strategic location.  Therefore, he decided to launch a preemptive strike, borrowing the very same tactics used by Ngô Quyền against the Southern Han in 938.  Under General Trần’s orders, large wooden stakes were planted beneath the waters of Bạch Đằng Bay, prior to the Mongols’ arrival.  With the traps in place, the forces of Đại Việt waited at Bạch Đằng for the Mongols to pass through.

As the Mongol fleet reached Bạch Đằng River, Trần Hưng Đạo was there to meet them.  Inevitably, a battle broke out between the forces of Yuan and Trần.  In a similar fashion to Ngô Quyền, the forces of Đại Việt pretended to lose, sailing away from the ships of the Yuan.  Just like the the Southern Han, the overconfident Mongol fleet pursued them with great vigour, consequently entangling themselves in the traps beneath the waves.

At that moment, with the stakes ripping through the Mongol ships, impaling the soldiers on board, a barrage of flaming arrows fell from the sky, incinerating the entire Mongol fleet.  More than 400 warships were completely destroyed by Trần Hưng Đạo’s soldiers, permanently neutralizing the Yuan army.  With the entire fleet eliminated, the Mongols could no longer go on fighting.  Prince Toghan’s retreating forces were also crushed by Đại Việt’s army at the China-Vietnam border, adding insult to their injuries.  With the Mongols subdued on all fronts, the forces of Đại Việt were finally victorious.

The war was over, the impossible was done.  Đại Việt had miraculously defeated the mighty Mongol Empire, forcing their leaders to retreat on three separate occasions.  The victory at Bạch Đằng Bay was a valuable lesson to the Mongols, and they never invaded again.  Trần Hưng Đạo was praised for his ingenious generalship against the Mongols invaders.  After his passing, the royal family blessed upon him the title of Hưng Đạo Đại Vương (Hưng Đạo, the Grand Commander).  This glorious victory would ensure the continuation of the Việt tradition, reminding the people of any nation that with enough determination, anything is possible.